In Hinduism, all festivals and fasting are feted as per Vikram Samvat. In Vikram Samvat, every three years, there is one more month known as Adhikamas, Adhimas, Malmas, or Purushottam mas. From the religious viewpoint, Adhikamas has distinct significance. Let us discern more about the month.
What is Adhikmas?
In the Hindu calendar, time is calculated consistent with the solar cycle and the lunar cycle. A year is of 13 months every three years to equalize the interval amongst the solar and lunar years. As a result of the extra one month, it is called Adhik Maas or Adhi Mas. From the religious point, this Adhimas has a special implication. It is said that the results of the religious works done in the Adhikmas month are ten times more than the ones done in other months. Hence, this month, devotees get more into religious work like worship-recitation, charity, fasting-fasting, yoga-meditation, etc.
Why does Adhikamas come once in 3 years?
You also may have beard this thought in your mind that if in this extra month or Adhik month, the results of religious deeds amplify so much, then why does this month occur only once in 3 years. We will tell you a particular reason behind this. The Hindu year is based on the solar cycle and the lunar cycle. The solar year is of 365/366 days, but the lunar year is of 354 days. There is a variance of about 11 days in the middle of the solar year and the lunar year, which equals about one month in 3 years. To eat up this difference, an extra month is added every three years. Attributable to the manifestation of one month more in the year, it is called Adhik Maas. There is also folklore encircling the whole concept of Adhik Maas.
As per mythology
According to the lore, the demon king Hiranyakashipu could not die in the allotted months, so more months were created for his death.
The myth is like this - Once the demon king, Hiranyakashipu contented Brahma Ji by austerity and asked him for the boon of immortality. Brahma Ji stated that he could not get immortality, so he should ask for some other boon. Then the demon king asked for a boon that he should neither perish by weapon, neither during the day nor at night, neither inside the house nor outside, he should not be killed by any human, animal, God or demon, he should not die in 12 months of the year. Then Brahma Ji granted this boon to him.
After attaining the boon, the despot Hiranyakashipu started to think that he was immortal and claimed to be the God. The killing of Hiranyakashyapu was obligatory, so Lord Vishnu incarnated as Narasimha (half man and half lion) in the month of Adhimas (the 13th month) and killed Hiranyakashipu by tearing him apart with his nails on the doorstep of the house at dawn.
Why is Adhikmas called Malmas?
In Adhik month, the fallouts of charity and worship are more than usual. Still, this month, religious activities like marriage, house-warming, naming ceremony, Yagyopaveet, and buying any new thing are deliberated out of bounds. Because of being an extra month, the month is considered to be filthy. Due to being dirty, it was named Malmas or the dirty month.
Why is Adhik month called Purushottam month?
There is also a mythical story behind the naming of Adhik month as Purushottam month. The sages of India have suggested gods for each lunar month. Like this, 12 deities of twelve months are agreed as rulers of the months. Since the 13th month originated to cut on the interlude amid the solar year and the lunar year, no deity was prepared to take the load of this extra month. But it was likewise obligatory to make the overlords of the 13th month, so all the sages prayed to Vishnu to bear the load all by month on himself. Vishnu acknowledged everyone's prayer and became the deity of Adhikamas. Since one of the names of Lord Vishnu is Purushottam, and he is the lord of the month; hence this month is also named Purushottam mas.
Worshiping Vishnu and chanting Vishnu Mantra is primarily beneficial in Adhik month or Purushottam month. Apart from this, reading and heeding to Shri Vishnu Purana, Shri Bhagwat Purana, Shrimad Devi Bhagwat, Bhavishyottara Purana, etc., is particularly beneficial in this month. It is supposed that Vishnu blesses the disciples who worship Lord Vishnu in this month, and all the wishes of the individual are fulfilled, and he is also unbound from all the sins he has done in his life.